Types of Radio that we should know

Some of us may already be familiar with the term FM radio. Which type of radio is the least used by so many people. However, there are still a number of other types of radio. Here are some types of radios that exist, between different:

Radio AM

AM radio (amplitude modulation) works with the principle of modulating radio waves and audio waves. These two waves have the same constant amplitude. But this modulation process then replace the amplitude of wave conductor (radio) match the amplitude of the audio wave.

Initially the use of AM radio solely for the needs of wireless telegram. The one man who worked on a radio broadcast with a human voice was Reginald Aubrey Fessenden. He worked on a one-man radio broadcast on human voice on December 23, 1900 at a distance of 50 miles (from Cobb Island to Arlington, Virginia). Currently AM radio is not too little used for commercial radio broadcasts because of poor sound quality.

FM radio

FM radio (frequency modulation) works on the same principle as AM radio, by modulating radio waves (conducting) with audio waves. Only, on the FM radio this modulation process resulted in changes in frequency. When AM radio is commonly used, Armstrong pursues that the radio difference problem lies in the type of signal being transmitted. At that time the audio wave is transmitted with radio waves by using amplitude modulation (AM).

This modulation is most vulnerable to weather disturbances. In the late 1920s Armstrong began working on modulation in which the amplitude of the conductor wave (radio) was created constant. In 1933 he finally pursue a frequency modulation system (FM) that produces much clearer sound, and is not distracted by bad weather.

Unfortunately this technology is not necessarily used in bulk. The economic depression of the 1930s resulted in the radio industry refusing to adopt this new system because it required the replacement of transmitters and receivers that cost less. New in 1940 Armstrong was able to establish an FM radio station at his own expense.

Two years later the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated a number of frequencies to FM Armstrong’s radio station. It takes a long time for frequency modulation to become a widely used system. In addition to these patents are not obtained by Armstrong.

Frustrating all the obstacles in fighting for the FM system, Armstrong completed his life tragically with suicide techniques. Lucky his wife then successfully fight for Armstrong rights for his invention. It was not until the late 1960s that FM became a truly established system. Nearly 2000 FM radio stations spread across America, FM became a microwave supporter, in the end FM is really declared as a flagship system in many communications fields.

Internet Radio

The invention of the Internet began to process the transmission of analog signals used by conventional radios. Internet radio (also known as web radio, streaming radio and e-radio) works with the technique of transmitting sound waves over the internet. The principle works almost the same with the short wave conventional radio (short wave), namely by using a continuous stream medium wave.

This working system allows radio broadcasts to be broadcast to all the world as long as the listener has an internet device. That’s why not a few expatriates who use internet radio to cultivate a sense of missed country of origin. In Indonesia, internet radio is usually collaborated with analog radio system by terrestrial radio station to broaden its broadcasting coverage.

Satellite Radio

Satellite radio transmits audio waves using digital signals. Unlike analog signals that use continuous waves, sound waves are transmitted across digital signals consisting of binary codes 0 and 1. These signals are transmitted to a much wider range of areas because they use satellites. It’s just that radio broadcasts can only be received by special equipment that can translate encrypted signals.

Satellite radio broadcasts can only be received in open locations where the antenna on the radio plane has a line of sight with the transmitting satellite. Satellite radio can only work that does not have a big barrier like a tunnel or building. Therefore satellite radio devices are not promoted for a little car radio. To get a good broadcast transmission, we need to create repeater stations like in America so that the quality of service excellence.

Expensive devices (because of using satellites) create this system commercially. Listeners must subscribe in order to pay attention to radio broadcasts. Even so the sound quality obtained is very clear, no longer no noise like conventional radio broadcasts. In addition, most of the content of the broadcast is free of ads and listeners have far less choice of broadcast channels (more than 120 channels).

Worldspace satellite radio provider that serves satellite radio broadcasting in America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa. Worldspace has three satellites serving different districts. In Indonesia, until 2002 Worldspace has been working with RRI, Trijaya Radio, Borneo Wave Channel (Masima Group), goindo.com and Kompas Cyber ​​Media as a filler of satellite radio services using the Asia Star satellite.

High-definition radio (HD Radio)

Radio is also known as a digital radio is working by combining analog and digital systems at once. That way allows two analog and digital stations to share the same frequency. This efficiency makes little content can be broadcast in the same position. The sound quality obtained by HD radio is as clear as satellite radio, but the services offered are free. But in order to receive a digital radio broadcast the listener must have an exclusive device that can capture digital signals.

Well, so is the explanation of the history and the types of radio. It turns out that radio is one communication device that is arguably the oldest in the world. This is evident from the explanation of the history above.

And even the radio has not a few types of opposites and of course also have the benefits and techniques of each work as has been described. Hopefully this paper can work for us all who read it.

Production Broadcast / Community Radio Program


Build community radio management capability about community radio programming.

Community radio programs consist of various formats like other radio stations (commercial / private and RRI) but their orientation and content are the most distinguishable. The following are some formats of community radio show programs.

1. Talk Show
Today’s Talk Show is a prima donna program, broadcast live / interactive and attractive. Coupled with its entertaining nature (entertainment) because one of the “necessities” nature of radio news, which until now still invite controversy. Entertainment is not really merely entertaining, but dynamic and lively. Therefore, the role of mentors / moderators most judge the success or failure of this event. Choose a mentor who is not emotional, fair, and neat in explaining the reality or opinion to the listener.
The very important difference between talk shows and news interviews is that talk shows have dynamic traits, are not glued to the actuality of the topic of conversation, and the hours are flexible.
Talk Show can be incorporated into a special program group or an interview program as an event. In fact there is a mention of each broadcast of the word is a talk show, because it refers to the meaning of the word itself ie talk (chat) and show (mat).
Two components that are not uncommon times in the talk show program are useful chats and music as a distraction.

Preparations to be held prior to holding a talk show are:

Define topics and goals.
Resources are suggested by more than one person. The presence of two respondents who contradict each other’s attitude / opinion, not only to fill the principle of balance, but also create harmony as well as controversy, to the extent that the talk show came to life.
Specify location, event packing and duration of broadcasting.
How is the concept?

The currently selected topic is highlighting
Analyze, not just case exposure
There is a comparable interaction between the speakers, not one person’s monopoly-one point of view
There was controversy, a pro-contra polemic
There is an open solution at the end of the conversation
What are the components?
1) Events Guide
The host is the person who will guide and manage the Talk show work, besides the guides also become managers of the dynamics of the circumstances that occurred in the talk show. In the implementation of talk shows, often the host is helped by an operator who set up many studio tools.

2) Event script / note
The event script is a guide for the event host to run this event. In this text also contains the topics that will be discussed, the name of the resource, the duration of the distribution of the talk-time for resource, time to interact and time for a distraction of the song.

3) Resources
The resource person is very urgent and is one of the key in the practice of talk show, because the person is the person will give opinion or argument about the topic to be talked about in the talk show.

4) Place
The venue or venue for a talk show should also be well prepared by the talk show organizer, whether the talk show will be performed in the studio or outside the studio. Outdoor talk shows outside the studio can be done for example in the Hall of the Village Hall, meeting hall and so on.

5) Communication tool
The communication tools used in the talk show work are the telephone lines. This tool is used in interactive sessions which provides an opportunity for the listener in the live location to participate or ask for the resource person directly. As for the talk show participants who are in one room with the speakers, the questions raised can be said directly or in writing.

6) Songs
In a talk show, music or songs are used at the beginning of the event before the counselor opens the talk show, and when the talk show is finished as a cover song.

7) Ads
Public service ads or advertisements may be broadcast or used during periods of interlude or as a distraction in a talk show. Usually this ad play lasts 1 minute.

What is the format of the broadcast?

LIVE (live broadcast, must be interactive)
TUNDA (previously recorded, purely monologically)
How is the planning?

Determining the intended target audience and requiring scientific enlightenment
Determining topics and resource persons from analysis to audience needs
Determine the guide, with criteria of tolerant, open, sharp and intellectual
Setting up places and equipment ON AIR especially if the live broadcast from the field
What is the sequence of the show?

Opening contains: introduction of events, guides, resource persons, and topics to be discussed. Can also be described the background of why the topic is selected.
The main discussion contains: (a) initial questions, usually having an open nature (requires explanation), (b) responses from respondents or listeners, and (c) developing further questions on those responses.
Concluding remarks: conclusions, sayings of thanks, and closing greetings, belong to subsequent program information. Conclusions do not necessarily have the resumes of conversation, can also be limited to brief analysis and open-ended questions to provoke listeners’ reflection. The whole structure of the conversation, interspersed with so many musical illustrations, is chosen to match the character of the conversation and the taste of the listener on the radio.
How to build talk show dynamics?
Talkshow dynamics are developed through comments and sharp questions from mentors who have the following characteristics:

Confirmation of truth of fact / analysis, for example: is it true father ever said ….
Clarify the truth of the admission with the data, for example: is there any proof of what you say … ..
Comparing opinions among sources, for example: how do you respond to the opinion … the indictment from someone that father ….
What is radio news?
The presentation of the facts is an interesting urgent event or opinion for as many listeners as possible

How to string the news?
Live broadcast:
The reporter explored the reality on the field and reported it at the same time from the field as well

Broadcast Snooze:
The reporter explored the reality on the field, then went back to the studio to process it before it aired

What are the news sections?

1. Announcer / Narrator

An announcer or a narrator is the person who will be on duty to read the news on the radio broadcast.

2. News Sources

The news to be said radio can be obtained from so many sources such as journalists / reporters in the field, contacts or relationships with information centers, politicians, god-given facts (events / events that are occurring instantly as mountains erupt, fires etc.), witnesses eyes, news agencies and so on.

3. News

The presentation of the facts is an interesting urgent event or opinion to as many of the listeners as you and I can from the resource person.

4. News Paper

News that has been obtained by the radio certainly not directly broadcast but must go through the process of reprocessing to become radio news. Radio news has been obtained that can be changed into the format News News Write, short news that comes from different media or rewritten. News is inserted, ie news that is completed or Mixed with insertion of voice of the speaker, news bulletin, ie a combination of short news presented in a block of time.

5. Song (interlude or back sound).

In news events that long duration example 30 minutes, listeners will sura meraa saturated and bored if only listen to the news alone, then the playback as a distraction would help to keep hearing the news broadcast, other than that when there are times of playback, can not rest much

6. Records of interviews with resource persons

7. Record of atmosphere (indigenous atmosphere of events)

What are the news formats?

Short news (Straight News)
News bulletin (List of Straight News)
Feature (In-depth News)
How is the production process?

Planning topics, resource persons, question formation
Conduct field reporting: Observation, Interview and Collect the written data in question
Writing a script, can be in the field can be in the studio
Read reports directly or snooze

How is the packaging?
• Ad-libitum (speech without script) is merely the text spoken by the broadcaster-reporter, directly from the field or in the studio.
• Spot (text, interview and event atmosphere)

How is the structure?
Reversed Pyramid:
(1) leads or headlines containing core facts (2) description of leads and (3) additional information

How long will it take?
• 30 seconds for Ad-Lib (maximum 20 line narration / if read standard 30 second speed)
• 90 to 150 seconds (2.5 minutes) for Spot

What are News Bulletins?
A collection of short stories, aired on a scheduled basis, duration of 5 to 30 minutes

What are the contents?

Introduction: News Summary
Core Materials: 3-10 Short News
Closing: News Summary
News bulletin type.
Serving a number of short stories with one theme of concentration eg: sports news or custom news only

Serving a number of short stories with various themes from sports, economics, politics, law, equipped with short interviews, Vox Pops, etc.

How is the packaging?
Single: just a few short stories without or with the introduction and closing
Variatif: a number of short stories with actuality interviews, vox pops feature even accompanied by intro-extro music and backsound

The short news package varies:
1.Ad-lib (just the text spoken by the presenter)
2.Spot (text recording, atmosphere and interview)
3.Live Report from reporter given guide by anchor

How to open?
Intro music (special music for bulletin)

1. Greeting the bulletin

good morning listeners, precisely at 7 pm, following bulletin from radio … with me …

2. Direct summary

(National Police Chief General Da’i Bachtiar confirmed … .., Chairman of the lawyer team of Abu Bakar Ba’asyir asked ……, Listener, from Malioboro area of ​​Yogyakarta, following radio twilight bulletin … ..). The first news is said to my colleague …… please.

How to close?
Music smash (music material exodus)

Instant greetings bulletin:
Listener, just this morning’s bulletin edition … .., thank you ….

Connecting the final news:
The news about this completed your encounter in the bulletin ….) Extro music (special music for bulletin

When is the broadcast schedule?
Every hour, Everyday, Once a Week


What is the purpose?
1. Promote the existence of radio in the community
2. Provide information on the most important radio symbol or identity
3. Establish a specific radio image in the mind of the listener
4. When it is broadcast, it is also useful as a pause and a “reminder”

How is the principle?
1. Represents the image of the radio to be built in the mind of the listener
2. Touching feelings and thoughts to be easy to remember
3. Have uniqueness dikomparasikan other radio
4. Broadcasted over and over again, especially during the event transition

What kind?
1. Jinggel guna radio station
2. Jinggel for radio show
3. Jinggel for radio broadcasters

How long will it take?
5 to 15 seconds

How to format the packaging
1. Ad-libitum (text that is read rhythmically by the narrator)
2. Spot (text combined with music, atmosphere and so on or limited to music and theme songs that refer to radio identity)

What are the music options?
1. Smash (Placed between slogan with radio name information)
2. Backsound (As background when narrative information pronunciation)
3. Intro-Extro (Starting and ending music, can be used but can not)

What are the elements?

1. Goal setting

The original requirement of the jingle is to judge the destination of the creation, the jingle intended to be used for what, for example, to promote radio, compose the image of a radio listener and so on.

2. Script

The manuscript is created as material to be said or inserted in the jinggle that will be created, in addition it can also be inserted interview results with a certain figure that if appropriate for inclusion in jinggle.

3. Narrator

The narrator is the one who will read the manuscript or fulfill the voice in the creation of the jinggel.

4. Production tools

Jinggel is good and deserves to be broadcast is jinggel that has been through the editing process, artificial tools in the form of computers required as among the input broadcast program, because the existing material or script can be combined (mixing) with so many other materials such as backsound songs.

5. Songs

Songs or music becomes a necessity in the broadcast program which later can be used as background music (backsound)

Some kind of jersey
a. Mention Station Name
The name of the station is named complete, if it is an example of Bikima, it opens with its abbreviation first: Biwara Kirana Mataram)

b. Mentioning Radio Frequency
The radio frequency is called a thorough number: 104.75, and the path: FM / AM)

c. Mentioned Studio Locations
A thorough address or name of an area known to the listener,
For example: From the complex of Timbulharjo Village Hall ….

d. Mentioning the Slogan
Keywords used by radio to describe their existence in the middle of listener: Timbulharjo residents information channel)

Positive expressions of local community figures on radio.

Type of speech
Provocative: MBS, Radio that develops customs and art
Suggestive: Light in ear, familiar in heart, Persada radio …
Informative: we are still together with the frequency ………


Make a jingle more than one so that when played not boring
Each jinggel should be packed with information, for example for the promotion of radio identity can be made up of three jingles with opposing narrators (1) names and frequencies (2) names and places (3) names and slogans
How is the process of making it?

Specify a custom destination (choose between the three destinations above)
Preparing elements of speech pertained to interviews if necessary, prepare the elements of music and choose the right narrator
Vocal narrator recording recording, then editing-mixing

Intro: R & B music (3 seconds)
Location: from Simpang Lima area Semarang … .. (2 seconds)
Smash: Soft Rock music (2 seconds)
Station Name: Jatayu FM (1 sec)
Slogan: location of young people hangkal (2 seconds)


What are the types of ads?

Commercial service ads (selling products)
Social service ads (selling messages)
How is the shape?

Ad-Libitum (a read only script, 30 seconds duration)
Spot (in the form of advertising script combined with music, sound effects, interview excerpts, duration 30-60 seconds)
Exclusive programs (ad-lib and spot broadcast alternately as a specific event sponsored media message)
What is the nature of the message?

Provocative (psychological coercion, sloganistic) example: Let’s you create a clean, healthy and comfortable Yogya
Informative (the narration is rich with information data, cause-and-effect) for example: Started Solo Street Sun, selling so many family equipments, start …
Suggestive (intriguing through metaphors or poetic sentences) for example: white face, natural and intelligent face or through the theme song with the lyrics (narration sung)
What elements in the ad?

Narration spoken alone, two or more
Music as effect (backsound, intro-extro, smash)
Atmosphere recording conditions that match ad story
Testimonials, excerpts of characters about the product / message
How is an ad process made?

Conducting product and message research and target segments
Determining what products to advertise and the benefits to be highlighted: soap for elegance (commercial)
Determining the core message that will be advertised: health, is everything, if so why we smoke?
Create a storyboard presentation of the advertising that will be produced: who as what, opened with what narrative
Determine the organizers of production: producer, voice actor, narrator, author (copy writer), operator
What is the usual advertising structure?

Draw attention: a touch of music or a powerful narrative at the start: shout, for example a person’s shout or a “sharp dialog” between two actors: “I just do not want to, what do you want?”
Music, narration or follow-up dialogue that can bring to a certain state the core message of the ad, belongs to a proverb or a public figure statement: “Emotions do not solve problems, emotions even bring problems”
Attracting attention: a touching touch that creates a strong impression, leaving the cuteness until it is always remembered
What needs to be avoided?

The use of foreign language is hard to understand
Giving hope, overly gratuitous promotions, creating imaginative listeners, “You want to get rich in an instant?”
The message smells SARA, “pitted” two ethnic figures
Too detailed to be difficult to remember, not basic information that has qualitative properties
Prior to broadcast, the advertisements that have been produced are tried to be listened to in limited circles, corrected and implemented afterwards


Feature is a program that breaks one topic of the problem through the many complementary views, parse and criticism presented in so many formats. Because the language is the story style and the nature of its investigative report, the feature is also called deep-seated. If straight news (short news) fixated on factual data, then the feature also includes opinion supporters, even so many different data and opinions from different figures. Briefly it can be said that the feature is a mixture of components: (1) the event archive, (2) the opinion of the party, (3) the imaginary human expression in the presentation.
History of the birth of the BBC London radio feature is a new dimension of the radio journalism program by combining the literary elements on when presented. For example a problem of poverty, in terms of social, economic, political, and educational background.
Three kinds of realities contained in the feature include (1) events (events), problems (case), and (3) phenomena (phenomena).
The sound elements contained in it include: (1) presenter (presenter voices), (2) the native voice of the field (sound effect), (3) smash / jingle and companion music.
Feature feature according to the information from the Center for Multimedia Education (MTC) Yogyakarta:

The process of running the story wants to be vertical and deep,
Unveils a gradual and chronological reflection.
Used in a real life topic, one life in one episode, and the story is relatively predictable.
Production Stage Feature
Feature Production requires a number of relatively longer stages than other programmable ones. This is because the feature will peel a symptom or problem more deeply and even more widely.

Process of Implementing Activities

Research 1 Determining the topic Producer – Reporter
Research 2 Organize the form and dig the data material Producer – Reporter
Production 1 Editing field data findings and script writing Producer – Script Writer
Production 2 Sound recording and mixing Narrator – Operator
The feature formats are formed according to the logic flow by using the inverted pyramid principle, in order of:
1. Introduction, revealing the most important element at the beginning of the show simply.
2. Development, bringing to the more housing reviews with intersections of supporting events data.
3. Endnotes, not infrequently times in the form of conclusions, can also form a message. For example, asking listeners to think of something from the report.

The text read by the narrator and accompanying music is placed as a speaker of the speaker’s voice. Number of respondents is too much. More than 5 people, do not ensure the quality of feature information. The quality of the feature is more determined on the selection of which recognition is appropriate and inappropriate to broadcast. Attractive statements are often unique, funny, humorous, humorous, and joyful-looking voices.

Feature program element

1) Producer and Reporter

The task that must be done by the party is to assess the topic, organize the form and dig the material or data required in producing the feature.

2) Announcer / Narrator

An announcer or narrator is the person who will be assigned to read the feature on the radio broadcast.

3) News / Data

News and data and sounds of the speakers are materials used for artificial features.

4) Scriptwriter

After the news and data as well as the required respondent’s voice has been obtained, then the next work is the creation of a feature script. The subsequent script will be pronounced in the feature broadcast, in addition to the script spoken by the narrator, in the feature program can also be submitted inserts in the form of votes from the speakers.

5) Music

A soft rhythmic song or songwriting is used in the feature when the event begins and when the feature ends. This tune in music often lasts for 10 seconds.

History of Prambors Radio Station Jakarta

Initially Prambors is a radio composed by a group of young people
which can only be heard in the Jakarta area, a number of members of Prambors, Imran
Amir, Mursid Rustam, Malik Sjafei and Bambang Wahyudi

They also assemble simple transmitters and all kinds of supporting devices
in Bambang Wahyudi’s rest room. Because there is no cassette or tape player
portable, then dipakailah rotary plates to play songs from the record.

In 1970, the Government issued a new rule, that each radio is incorporated
the law must be in the form of a Limited Liability Company (PT) or Association. Prambors too
abide by the rules, to the point of becoming PT Radio Prambors Broadcasting
Service. Certificate is then processed into PT Radio Prambors in the 80s.

Slowly, it turns out that Prambors already has a community of listeners
the majority of young people. Songs and broadcast lessons were matched with
segmentation, ie young people. From 1971 to 1978, Prambors was also growing
steady in the path of young people, who at that time as there is no rival. Product of Prambors
more diverse. Starting from compilation tapes, to the off-air event of Songwriting Competition
Teenagers (LCLR) are successful.

In the 80s, Prambors began to fix because in this era began to feel
competition with other radio stations. One of their endeavors to remain
keeping the listener community is through games, quizzes developed
quite varied, with gifts that were then quite sensational, for example cars.
In addition to the quiz, in the era of the 90’s began to attend also new events, such as Boy’s Notes,
Diary, even off-air event like Tenda Mangkal, Prambors Nite. Community listeners
Prambors increasingly large, especially supported by audio quality improvements with
moved to FM 102.3 in 1987.

Due to the re-arrangement of all frequencies issued by
Department of Transportation, as of August 1, 2004 Prambors changed its frequency
was FM 102.3 to FM 102.2. Until now, Prambors has appeared in 8 cities
in Indonesia, namely in Prambors Jakarta 102.2 FM, Prambors Bandung 98.4 FM,
Prambors Semarang 102 FM, Prambors Solo 99.2 FM, Prambors Yogyakarta 95.8 FM,
Prambors Surabaya 89.3 FM, Prambors Medan 97.5 FM, and Prambors Makassar 105.1
FM. The extent of Prambors network is increasingly felt especially in so many programs
which jump from Jakarta directly to 8 cities.

Until now, Prambors continues to accompany young people with programs
exciting. Every Monday – Friday there is Happy BeGi! For morning program, day
given guidance by Indra Bekti and Nycta Gina, during the day there is Hit the Hits guided
by Andari, In the afternoon there is a Danang Show given a guide by Danang, at night there
The Hey-Ho Show is guided by Jessica Elenora and Kresna Julio, and on Saturday-and
week there is The Weekend Show given guidance by CJ, and also Hot 20 Countdown
guided by Reza Alqadri.

With empirical 40 years (since 1971) year as a radio of young people,
Prambors is not infrequently the Place of the Younger Child. Prambors and creativity
not only accessible to mudan and beyond the radio, but also via the internet, either
through the official website of Prambors (www.pramborsfm.com) or through so many kinds
social media youngsters like Twitter and Facebook. The gadget means like a phone
cellular, computer, and other media were so among the means of young people to
access Prambors.

For many years in the air, Prambors had a most embedded logo
with the name of Prambors. The logo is a face of a woman with curly hair,
vignette images. People call it “Si Jabrik”. This logo does not have a moment yet
Prambors is still a “gang” era.

Image result for gambar logo prambors

Initially the logo of Prambors present only has temporary properties in sticker format
read “Prambors”. But as time went by, this business changed when
Prambors must be a business entity. When Prambors must have a logo that is
fixed and unchanged. The current Prambors logo was inspired from among the covers
a collection album of Dutch music – The Exception is very unique attention.
Images from the album are similar to “Si Jabrik”. But to make a difference,
The Prambors logo was modified. The image of the woman is processed so facing
to the bottom, And the culminating image is one of the former broadcasters of Prambors,

The ‘Jabrik’ logo began to be worn around 1969, when Prambors had
shaped foundation. This curly woman is so popular that not a few are
imitate and install in the car windshield.

In the 1980s, the size of the Jabrik narrowed, only in the letter “O”

Terms of use of radio frequency spectrum

The radio frequency spectrum is a limited and strategic natural resource and has a high-efficient value to the extent to be managed effectively and appropriately in order to obtain optimal use for maximum prosperity of the people.

In accordance with Article 33 paragraph (1) of Law no. 36 of 1999 concerning Telecommunication and Article 17 paragraph (1) of Government Regulation no. 53 of 2000 concerning the Use of Radio Frequency Spectrum and Satellite Orbit that any use of radio frequency spectrum must obtain permission from the Minister of Communications and Information Technology whose management is carried out by the Director General of Resources and Equipment of Post and Information Technology.

Permission for using radio frequency spectrum, including:
Radio Frequency Spectrum Band Permission (IPSFR)
IPSFR is a license for the use of radio frequencies submitted in certain radio frequency band formats on a national scale as well as a particular district zone. IPSFR issuance is decided through the mechanism of auction selection / beauty contest or evolution from ISR to IPSFR.

IPSFR is awarded for 10 (ten) years and can be extended 1 (one) time for ten (10) years.

IPSR has been used for radio frequency usage permission for mobile 2G / 3G mobile network needs (800/900/1800/2100 MHz) and Wireless Broadband (BWA 2.3 GHz) implementation.

Radio Station License (ISR)
ISR is a radio frequency usage license submitted in radio frequency channel format for each radio station. ISR issuance is decided through technical analysis of radio frequency channel awareness and potential interference to other radio frequency usage and processed according to the first-come first-served principle.

ISR submitted for a period of 5 (five) years and can be extended 1 (one) time around 5 (five) years.

Use of radio frequency that can be submitted in ISR format, between different needs for Microwave Link, IPSFR mobile broadband and wireless broadband network, radio and TV broadcast, maritime and aviation radio, satellite communication system, radio trunking, Transmitter Link Studio (STL ), and Conventional Radio / Concession / Komrad (Repeater Station, Base Station, Mobile Unit, Handy Talky (HT)).

Class Permission

Class permission is a right assigned to individual natural persons and / or legal entities in order to operate a telecommunication equipment using a radio frequency spectrum under which criteria must comply with technical regulations.

The use of telecommunication equipment and equipment in which the learning room permit is permitted shall follow certain technical regulations that are decided in the terms and the use of their frequency may be used in sharing.

The use of radio frequencies in radio frequency bands categorized as class permits, no longer required to have ISR or IPSFR, but the telecommunication equipment and equipment used must have device certificates and equipment issued by the Directorate General of Resources and Equipment of Post and Information Technology.

The study room permit has been applied for the use of the 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz Bands as well as the equipment that uses radio frequency with a maximum transmit power (ERP) of 10 mW and equipment of Short Range Devices (SRD).

Radio frequency spectrum licensing service is carried out using information technology in the form of data processing system and national radio frequency usage database (Spectrum Management Information System), as well as monitoring system of national radio frequency usage and support of Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) of Radio Frequency Spectrum Monitoring (Balmon / Loka Monitor / Post Monitor) totaling 37 UPT spread in districts of Indonesia.

The use of radio frequency shall be in accordance with the Radio Station License granted, suitable for designation and not interfere with each other. Radio frequency users are prohibited from changing and / or changing the radio frequency, administrative data and technical data of radio stations already listed in the Radio Station License. The applicant must first submit a request for the evolution of Radio Station License data for the Director General of Resources and Equipment of Post and Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Informatics. Radio Station License or a copy must be placed on the station station’s place.